DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11009-0121 |
Open Access |
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How to cite this article:
Gupta S, Karkra R, Chhabra R, Karkra S. Is Defecation Posture and Diet Associated with Functional Constipation in Indian Children?. Ann Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol 2023; 5 (1):1-4.
Background: Functional constipation accounts for over 95% of cases of constipation in children >1 years of age. This can have serious and chronic health consequences.
Objective: To assess whether defecation posture and diet are associated with functional constipation in Indian children.
Study design: Case-control, hospital-based.
Participants: Children between the ages of 2–18 years presenting to outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital (Artemis Hospitals, Gurugram, Haryana, India) between 15th December 2020 and 15th February 2022.
Results: A higher proportion of cases were using a Western toilet (71.3 vs 49.3%) and consuming a mixed diet (44 vs 27.3%) compared to controls.
Conclusion: Sitting defecation posture (Western toilet) and mixed diets are associated with functional constipation in Indian children.
The liver performs innumerable critical functions. A single biochemical test may not be able to correctly identify the type and severity of liver impairment or the functional hepatic reserve. Liver function (or biochemical) tests (LFT) not only indicate the severity of hepatocyte injury or impairment of bile flow but also its synthetic, metabolic, or excretory functions. The interpretation of laboratory tests in children lacks age and gender-specific reference intervals from healthy children and adolescents. LFTs are seldom diagnostic of a specific disease but only suggest a category or group of disorders, viz intra/extrahepatic cholestasis or viral/autoimmune/ischemic hepatitis. Nevertheless, the results of the biochemical tests must be interpreted in the context of the clinical setting.
Children with chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, unexplained diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or celiac disease may have Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, carbohydrate malabsorption, or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Breath testing is often used in children, primarily to assess carbohydrate malabsorption, SIBO, fat malabsorption, and H. pylori infection. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Until now, their widespread use has been hindered by the lack of standardization in children and the problem of availability. The aim of this review is to provide guidance on the usefulness of breath testing in children with various GI disorders.
As doctors, we are usually bound by two sayings that popularize Rome. “When in Rome, do what the Romans do,” which essentially cautions us to adapt to the system one is working in. “All roads lead to Rome” or its counter-argument “Not all roads lead to Rome,” which essentially balances expected and unexpected outcomes when a certain clinical algorithm is conventionally or unconventionally executed. With the latter saying, we are wiser in retrospect. The Rome criterion now governs our approach to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Do these criteria ease our diagnosis, or are they a set of lines that hinder us with watertight compartments?